Types of storage devices and their functions

types of storage devices and their functions

Would you like to know about the types of storage devices? Why storage devices are used? How does the storage device work? What are their advantages or disadvantages?

If you have any such questions in your mind about storage devices and want to know the answers, then stay with me till the end of this article. Because I'm going to answer all these questions here.

What is a storage device?

A storage device is a part of computer hardware that is used to store data. It's remembering our data or information so it's also known as memory. In a computer system, memory is two types:

  1. primary memory: Generally RAM and ROM are the primary memory. Which are used directly by the CPU for faster performance. But the primary memory is a volatile memory.
  2. secondary memory: It's also known as backup memory where you can store a large amount of data. Hard disk (HDD), solid-state drive (SSD), Pendrive, and floppy disk drive are the example of secondary memory.

Now let's discuss in detail their working principle, advantages, and disadvantages.

Random-access memory(RAM)

types of storage devices and their functions

Ram is a primary memory in the computer system. Which is used to perform the computer's everyday tasks like loading applications, browse the internet, work on Msword, or experiencing games.

Ram also helps you to switch faster from one application to another. If your computer is very slow or unresponsive you can upgrade your RAM to make it faster.


  • It is used on a computer, laptop, and mobile devices.


  • small in size and portable.
  • Fast data transfer capacity.

Disadvantages of RAM

  • Expensive.
  • Volatile memory.

Read-only memory(ROM)

types of storage devices and their functions

Rom is a fixed storage device. It is a volatile memory used in computer memory chips. So it stores data as permanent or semi-permanent programs.

Application of ROM

  • Use to store computer start-up routine.


  • Non-volatile memory.
  • Good durability.

Hard disk drive(HDD)

types of storage devices and their functions

The hard disk drive is an important and permanent storage device in computer hardware. Where all your data and application are saved.

And your computer boots from this device. When your computer turns off it stored all the data and programs.

The hard disk actually works with a head and magnetic platter. When the platter starts spinning, the head moves from it and reads the data.

Generally, the common rpm rates of HDD in the market are 5400 or 7200 rpm.


  • Desktop.
  • Laptop.
  • As a portable storage device.


  • It stores a large amount of data.
  • Better size for holding.
  • Good read and write speed.


  • High power consumption.
  • Make noise for its moveable components.
  • Very sensitive, easily break or tear.

Solid-state drive(SSD)

types of storage devices and their functions

An SSD is also a storage device like a hard disk. Which is also used to store data in a computer device. But SSD is made with an integrated circuit like flash memory.

There are no moving components like the hard disks. For this reason, SSD gives better durability and longevity. The speed of a solid-state drive is also faster than the hard disk.


  • Mobile and laptop.
  • High-end laptop.
  • As an external storage device.


  • Compact size.
  • Very fast read and write speed.
  • No noise from it.
  • Less power consumption.

Disadvantages of solid-state drive

  • Limited storage and very expensive.
  • Limited amount of writes.

USB drive

types of storage devices and their functions

USB drive is a portable memory stick to stored any type of data. The USB flash drive is also known as a thumb drive for its dimensions. Because the dimensions of the drive are also the same as the dimensions of your thumb.

USB drive is made with a small circuit board that is encased into a plastic or steel body to keep it safe.

To connect the USB drive with the computer system you didn’t need any cord. Just you need to plug the USB drive into a USB port.

Also Read: The easiest way to create windows 10 bootable USB from iso

USB drive is the modified version of the floppy disk. It is better than a floppy disk drive. There is no chance of scratch. USB drive is extra dependable and sturdy.

Also, there is no chance to break. It is very easy to carry and hold. There is little chance to corrupt depending on your uses.


  • As a portable storage device.


  • Small size.
  • Faster transfer speed.
  • Lightweight and easy to portable.

Disadvantages of USB drives

  • A limited number of write cycles.

Optical disk drives

types of storage devices and their functions

The optical disk drive is using both laser and electromagnetic heads. Which reads waves close to the light spectrum.

You can use a small amount of data to store. The speed is quite good but better than older magnetic drives.

You can use optical drives as a cd, DVD, or blu ray disk. In Blu ray and DVD drives, the range of storage data is within the gigabyte range. Cd being around megabytes range around 700 MB.


  • To store a limited amount of data like audio and movie.
  • To make an application installation disk.


  • Portable.
  • Better speed than older magnetic drive.


  • A limited amount of data can store.
  • Less compatibility than DVD-RW.

FAQ's on the storage device

There are a few more questions about storage devices that many people usually want to know. So I added them to my readers in this article.

Q1. How many types of storage devices are there?

Actually, there are two varieties of storage devices in the computer system.
  • primary storage devices as RAM and ROM
  • Secondary storage devices as HDD, SSD, FDD.

Q2. What are examples of storage devices?

Examples of storage devices are hard disk drive, solid-state drive, Pendrive, floppy disk drive, etc.

Q3. Which device is a storage device?

The device which is used to store data is called a storage device. Actually, it's a part of computer hardware. which helps us to store our important data or information for a long time.

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